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Shakespeare quotes page

PLAY: Measure for Measure ACT/SCENE: 3.2 SPEAKER: Pompey CONTEXT: ’Twas never merry world since, of two usuries, the
merriest was put down, and the worser allowed by
order of law a furred gown to keep him warm; and
furred with fox and lamb-skins too, to signify, that
craft, being richer than innocency, stands for the facing. DUTCH: Met het vroolijk leventjen in de wereld is het uit, sinds,
van twee woekerzaken, de vroolijkste verboden is en aan
de slechtste van de twee bij de wet een pelsrok werd
toegekend om zich warm te houden,
MORE: Schmidt:
Usury=The practice of taking interest for money
Craft=Cunning, artifice, guile
Compleat:
To lend upon usury=Op rente leenen
I shall pay you with usury=Ik zal het met woeker betaalen
Craft=List, loosheyd Topics: law/legal, offence, corruption, status, money, order/society

PLAY: Measure for Measure
ACT/SCENE: 1.1
SPEAKER: Duke Vincentio
CONTEXT:
My haste may not admit it;
Nor need you, on mine honour, have to do
With any scruple; your scope is as mine own
So to enforce or qualify the laws
As to your soul seems good. Give me your hand:
I’ll privily away. I love the people,
But do not like to stage me to their eyes:

DUTCH:
Ook moge, bij mijn eer, u geen bedenking
Doen aarz’len; uwe macht is als de mijne;
Verscherp, verzacht de wetten, – ‘t staat u vrij, –

MORE:
Schmidt:
Scruple=Doubt
Scope=Power
Compleat:
Free scope=de ruimte
I give your anger scope=Ik geef uw kwaadheid de vrye loop

Topics: authority, justice, law/legal, independence, status

PLAY: Cymbeline
ACT/SCENE: 3.2
SPEAKER: Belarius
CONTEXT:
A goodly day not to keep house with such
Whose roof’s as low as ours! Stoop, boys. This gate
Instructs you how t’ adore the heavens and bows you
To a morning’s holy office. The gates of monarchs
Are arched so high that giants may jet through
And keep their impious turbans on, without
Good morrow to the sun. Hail, thou fair heaven!
We house i’ th’ rock, yet use thee not so hardly
As prouder livers do.

DUTCH:
Een dag te schoon om thuis te blijven, onder
Een dak zoo laag als ‘t onze


Keep the house=Stay home
Jet=Strut, swagger
Stoop=Bow down
Impious=Sinful, wicked (turbans: Giants were often depicted in romantic novels as turban-wearing Saracens)

Compleat:
To keep house=Huis houden; binnens huis blyven
To jet or jut=Uitstooten, uitwaards loopen
To stoop=Buigen, bokken of bukken
Impious=Ongodvruchtig, godloos

Topics: nature, life, equality, status, authority

PLAY: King Lear
ACT/SCENE: 2.2
SPEAKER: Kent
CONTEXT:
A knave, a rascal, an eater of broken meats; a base, proud, shallow, beggarly, three-suited, hundred-pound, filthy, worsted-stocking knave; a lily-livered, action-taking knave; a whoreson, glass-gazing, super-serviceable finical rogue; one-trunk-inheriting slave; one that wouldst be a bawd in way of good service; and art nothing but the composition of a knave, beggar, coward, pander, and the son and heir of a mongrel bitch; one whom I will beat into clamorous whining if thou deniest the least syllable of thy addition

DUTCH:
Dat je een schurk bent, een gladjakker, een pottenlikker,
een lage, verwaten, leeghoofdige bedelaar; een gratis
livreien dragende;

MORE:

White livers used to signify cowardice. Hence lily-livered (Macbeth, 5.3) and milk-livered (King Lear, 4.2), both compounds coined by Shakespeare
Schmidt:
Broken meats=Dcraps, leftovers, such as a menial would eat
Three-suited= Serving men were allotted three suits of clothes
Glass-gazing=Vain
Finical=fussy, fastidious
One-trunk-inheriting=With only enough possessions to fill one trunk
Compleat:
Finical (affected)=Gemaakt, styf
Broken meat=Klieken, overschoten spyze.
Burgersdijk notes:
Bedelachtigen, pronkenigen. Zeer duidelijk zijn de scheldwoorden in het oorspronkelijke niet. Het beggarly zou b. v, wel een bepaling van threesuited kunnen zijn, en dit laatste behoeft dan niet te zien op het vaak verwisselen van kleederen, zooals pronkers doen, maar den dienaar kenschetsen, daar misschien een meester aan zijne knecht drie pakken in ‘t jaar gaf. Het worsted-stocking, dat volgt, ziet op de gewoonte om, zoo het maar even ging, zijden kousen te dragen; wie grofwollen kousen droeg, was niet veel bijzonders.

Topics: insult, invented or popularised, poverty and wealth, order/society, status

PLAY: Hamlet
ACT/SCENE: 4.2
SPEAKER: Hamlet
CONTEXT:
HAMLET
Ay, sir, that soaks up the king’s countenance, his rewards, his authorities. But such officers do the king best service in the end. He keeps them, like an ape, in the corner of his jaw, first mouthed to be last swallowed. When he needs what you have gleaned, it is but squeezing you and, sponge, you shall be dry again.
ROSENCRANTZ
I understand you not, my lord.
HAMLET
I am glad of it. A knavish speech sleeps in a foolish ear.

DUTCH:
Een schelmsch gezegde slaapt in ‘t stump’rig. /
De oren van een dwaas zijn doof voor scherts. /
In zotte ooren valt een schalksch gezegde in slaap.

MORE:
Knavish = sly, villainous

Topics: dignity, deceit, proverbs and idioms, status, order/society

PLAY: Measure for Measure
ACT/SCENE: 1.1
SPEAKER: Duke Vincentio
CONTEXT:
What figure of us think you he will bear?
For you must know, we have with special soul
Elected him our absence to supply,
Lent him our terror, dress’d him with our love,
And given his deputation all the organs
Of our own power: what think you of it?

DUTCH:
Hoe, denkt gij, zal hij omen stoel bekleeden?
Want weet, wij kozen hem na rijp’lijk wikken
Tot onzen plaatsvervanger in ons afzijn,
En dragen hem des volks ontzag en liefde,
De rechten en de midd’len, waar wij zelve
Mee heerschen, over. Wat dunkt u hiervan?

MORE:
Schmidt:
Figure=Image, representation
Absence to supply=Substitute, deputise
Compleat:
Figure (or representation)=Afbeelding
Figure (or appearance)=Gedaante, aanzien
To make some figure in the world=Eenig aanzien in de waereld verkrygen
To supply one’s place=Iemands plaats bekleeden
Deputation=Afzending, bezending
To depute=Afzenden, afvaardigen, afschikken

Topics: authority, justice, status

PLAY: The Tempest
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Prospero
CONTEXT:
MIRANDA
If by your art, my dearest father, you have
Put the wild waters in this roar, allay them.
The sky, it seems, would pour down stinking pitch,
But that the sea, mounting to th’ welkin’s cheek,
Dashes the fire out. Oh, I have suffered
With those that I saw suffer. A brave vessel
Who had, no doubt, some noble creature in her
Dashed all to pieces. Oh, the cry did knock
Against my very heart! Poor souls, they perished.
Had I been any god of power, I would
Have sunk the sea within the earth or ere
It should the good ship so have swallowed and
The fraughting souls within her.
PROSPERO
Be collected.
No more amazement. Tell your piteous heart
There’s no harm done.
MIRANDA
Oh, woe the day!
PROSPERO
No harm.
I have done nothing but in care of thee,

DUTCH:
Wees niet ontdaan:
Blijf kalm, en zeg tot uw meewarig hart —
Geen ramp viel voor.

MORE:
There’s no harm done’ still in use today.
By your art=Magic
Welkin=Edge of the sea or sky
Fraughting=Freight, freighted, freighting
Amazement=Terror, horror
Compleat:
Fraught=Bevracht, van “to Freight”
Burgersdijk notes:
O dag van wee! enz. De gewone, overgeleverde tekst luidt: Pros. Tell your piteous heart, There’s no harm done. — Mir. O, woe the day. — Pros. No harm. I have done etc., zoodat Prospero zegt: ,Zeg uw meewarig hart: Geen ramp viel voor” (of: „Geen leed geschiedde”), waarop Miranda, vreemd genoeg na dezen troostgrond, uitroept: „O, dag van wee !” en Prospero herneemt: „Geen ramp (of ,;Geen leed”). Niets deed ik” enz. Veel natuurlijker is het zoo, volgens Elze’s verbetering, Miranda met hare weeklacht haren vader in de reden valt, alvorens deze haar heeft kunnen troosten; zoodra haar vader gezegd heeft: tell your piteous heart , roept zij uit: O woe the day! en op het vertroostend zeggen van haar vader: There ‘s no harm done, vraagt zij verbaasd en verrast: No harm ? waarop Prospero herneemt: I have done nothing etc. Deze gissing van Elze is in de vertaling gevolgd.

Topics: understanding, status, invented or popularised, still in use

PLAY: Coriolanus
ACT/SCENE: 3.1
SPEAKER: Coriolanus
CONTEXT:
Behold, these are the tribunes of the people,
The tongues o’ the common mouth: I do despise them;
For they do prank them in authority,
Against all noble sufferance.

DUTCH:
Daar zijn de volkstribunen, ziet! de tongen
Des grooten volksmonds. Ik veracht hen diep;
Zij pralen met hun ambtsgezag, veel meer
Dan de adel dulden kan.

MORE:
Prank (used contemptuously)=Dress themselves (ostentatiously) in authority.
Against all noble sufferance=In a manner no noble can tolerate

Schmidt:
Noble=Of an ancient and illustrious family

Compleat:
To prank up=Opschikken, oppronken
To prank up one’s self=Zich opschikken
Pranked up=Opgeschikt, opgepronkt

Topics: status, poverty/wealth, authority

PLAY: Measure for Measure
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Pompey
CONTEXT:
Come; fear you not: good counsellors lack no
clients: though you change your place, you need not
change your trade; I’ll be your tapster still.
Courage! there will be pity taken on you: you that
have worn your eyes almost out in the service, you
will be considered.

DUTCH:
Kom, wees zonder zorg; goede raadslui zijn nooit zonder
klanten.

MORE:
Schmidt:
Tapster=One who draws beer and serves the customers of an alehouse
Compleat:
Tapster=Een tapper, biertapper

Topics: lawyers, law/legal, justice, status

PLAY: The Tempest
ACT/SCENE: 2.1
SPEAKER: Gonzalo
CONTEXT:
SEBASTIAN
‘Scape being drunk for want of wine.
GONZALO
I’ th’ commonwealth I would by contraries
Execute all things. For no kind of traffic
Would I admit. No name of magistrate.
Letters should not be known. Riches, poverty,
And use of service—none. Contract, succession,
Bourn, bound of land, tilth, vineyard—none.
No use of metal, corn, or wine, or oil.
No occupation. All men idle, all.
And women too, but innocent and pure.
No sovereignty—
SEBASTIAN
Yet he would be king on ’t.
ANTONIO
The latter end of his commonwealth forgets the beginning.
GONZALO
All things in common nature should produce
Without sweat or endeavor. Treason, felony,
Sword, pike, knife, gun, or need of any engine,
Would I not have. But nature should bring forth
Of its own kind all foison, all abundance,
To feed my innocent people.

DUTCH:
Geen huur of erfpacht, grenssteen, land- noch wijnbouw,
Geen kennis van metaal, graan, wijn of olie,
Geen ambacht; alle mannen nietsdoend, allen;
De vrouwen ook, maar schuldeloos en rein;
Geen oppermacht;

MORE:
Schmidt:
Commonwealth=Body politic
By contraries=Contrary to usual customs
Letters=Sophisticated learning; also writings, written records
Bound of land” explains “Bourn,” French Borne. (Distinguished from “bourn,” a stream.)
Foison=Rich harvest, abundance
Tilt=Tillage, husbandry
Compleat:
Contraries are best known by their contraries=Tegenstellingen worden best uit tegenstellingen gekend
Lettered=Geletterd, geleerd
A man slenderly lettered=Een man van weinig kennis
Bourn=Een bron
Foison (or plenty)=Overvloed
Tilling=Landbouwing
Burgersdijk notes:
Bij ‘t reg’len van mijn staat enz. De utopische regeeringsplannen, welke door Gonzalo hier op satyrische wijze worden voorgedragen, zijn, gedeeltelijk zelfs woordelijk , ontleend aan Florio’s vertaling van Montaigne’s Essays; men vergelijke Boek I, hoofdstuk 30, On the Caniballes, afgedrukt b.v. in Delius inleiding tot zijne uitgave van dit stuk. Het exemplaar van Florio’s vertaling, dat in het bezit is geweest van Shakespeare, is bewaard gebleven; het is van zijne naamteekening voorzien en bevindt zich in de bibliotheek van het Britsch Museum.

Topics: ambition, nature, status, order/society, law/legal

PLAY: Coriolanus
ACT/SCENE: 2.3
SPEAKER: Coriolanus
CONTEXT:
Most sweet voices!
Better it is to die, better to starve,
Than crave the hire which first we do deserve.
Why in this woolvish gown should I stand here,
To beg of Hob and Dick, that do appear,
Their needless vouches? Custom calls me to’t:
What custom wills, in all things should we do’t,
The dust on antique time would lie unswept,
And mountainous error be too highly heapt
For truth to o’er-peer. Rather than fool it so,
Let the high office and the honour go
To one that would do thus. I am half through;
The one part suffer’d, the other will I do.

DUTCH:
Dit wil ‘t gebruik? — Maar deden
Wij alles naar den eisch van oude zeden,
Dan wierd het stof des tijds nooit weggevaagd;
De dwaling wies tot berg, en nimmer waagt
De waarheid dan de slechting

MORE:
Proverb: Custom makes sin no sin

Schmidt:
Hob and Dick=Tom, Dick and Harry
Vouches=Attestations
Custom= (1) Common use, received order; (2) Habit, regular practice
O’erpeer (archaic definition)=Rise or tower above, overcome, excel.
Compleat:

Custom=Gewoonte, neering
The customary laws of a nation=De gewoone wetten van een Volk
Peer=Gelyk, weergaa

Topics: merit, achievement, status, authority, leadership, proverbs and idioms

PLAY: Richard II
ACT/SCENE: 3.3
SPEAKER: King Richard II
CONTEXT:
HENRY BOLINGBROKE
So far be mine, my most redoubted lord,
As my true service shall deserve your love.
KING RICHARD II
Well you deserve: they well deserve to have,
That know the strong’st and surest way to get.
Uncle, give me your hands: nay, dry your eyes;
Tears show their love, but want their remedies.
Cousin, I am too young to be your father,
Though you are old enough to be my heir.
What you will have, I’ll give, and willing too;
For do we must what force will have us do.
Set on towards London, cousin, is it so?

DUTCH:
Wij moeten doen, wat overmacht gebiedt. —
Naar Londen; — neef, niet waar, daar gaan wij heen

MORE:

Proverb: They that are bound must obey

Redoubted=Feared, respected (often used to address a monarch)
Want=Fail to provide (a remedy)

Compleat:
Redoubted=Geducht, ontzaglyk
Want=Gebrek

Topics: proverbs and idioms, still in use, status, remedy, merit

PLAY: Hamlet
ACT/SCENE: 3.2
SPEAKER: Hamlet
CONTEXT:
Why, let the stricken deer go weep,
The hart ungallèd play.
For some must watch while some must sleep.
So runs the world away.

DUTCH:
Men kan verheugd zijn of benard, Zo is ’t op aard verdeeld. /
Gewaakt er moet, zal slapen eene: Zoo blijft de wereld aan ‘t rollen. /
Wij komen voor- of achteraan, Zoo is de loop der zaken.

MORE:
“For some must watch while some must sleep” is still in use today; also the basis for titles of several works.

Topics: life, still in use, status, order/society, status

PLAY: All’s Well that Ends Well
ACT/SCENE: 2.3
SPEAKER: King
CONTEXT:
KING
‘Tis only title thou disdain’st in her, the which
I can build up. Strange is it that our bloods,
Of colour, weight, and heat, pour’d all together,
Would quite confound distinction, yet stand off
In differences so mighty. If she be
All that is virtuous, save what thou dislikest,
A poor physician’s daughter, thou dislikest
Of virtue for the name: but do not so:
From lowest place when virtuous things proceed,
The place is dignified by the doer’s deed:
Where great additions swell’s, and virtue none,
It is a dropsied honour. Good alone
Is good without a name. Vileness is so:
The property by what it is should go,
Not by the title. She is young, wise, fair;
In these to nature she’s immediate heir,
And these breed honour: that is honour’s scorn,
Which challenges itself as honour’s born
And is not like the sire: honours thrive,
When rather from our acts we them derive
Than our foregoers: the mere word’s a slave
Debauched on every tomb, on every grave
A lying trophy, and as oft is dumb
Where dust and damn’d oblivion is the tomb
Of honour’d bones indeed. What should be said?
If thou canst like this creature as a maid,
I can create the rest: virtue and she
Is her own dower; honour and wealth from me.

DUTCH:
Ontspruit een edel doen uit lagen staat,
Die wordt verhoogd, geadeld door de daad;
Wie zwelt van trots, op deugd niet, maar op bloed,
Heeft waterzuchtige’ adel.

MORE:
Proverb: There is no difference of bloods in a basin
Proverb: Man honours the place, not the place the man
Additions=Titles
Dignify=To give lustre to, to honour
Swell (swell us or swell is– debated)=Inflate
Dropsied= Diseased (with dropsy)
Dislike=Disapprove, regard with ill-will or disgust
Compleat:
Addition=Bydoening, byvoegsel
Dropsy=Waterzucht
Swell=Swellen, opblaazen; Uitzetten, grootr worden, oploopen; zwellen
Dislike=Mishaagen, misnoegen

Topics: virtue, order/society, status, dignity, status

PLAY: Richard II
ACT/SCENE: 4.1
SPEAKER: King Richard II
CONTEXT:
HENRY BOLINGBROKE
Lords, you that here are under our arrest,
Procure your sureties for your days of answer.
Little are we beholding to your love,
And little look’d for at your helping hands.
KING RICHARD II
Alack, why am I sent for to a king,
Before I have shook off the regal thoughts
Wherewith I reign’d? I hardly yet have learn’d
To insinuate, flatter, bow, and bend my limbs:
Give sorrow leave awhile to tutor me
To this submission. Yet I well remember
The favours of these men: were they not mine?
Did they not sometime cry, ‘all hail!’ to me?
So Judas did to Christ: but he, in twelve,
Found truth in all but one: I, in twelve thousand, none.
God save the king! Will no man say amen?
Am I both priest and clerk? well then, amen.
God save the king! although I be not he;
And yet, amen, if heaven do think him me.
To do what service am I sent for hither?

DUTCH:
Den koning heil! — zegt niemand „Amen”? Moet ik
En priester zijn en leek? Nu goed dan, — Amen!
Den koning ,heil! schoon ik het niet meer zij ;
En Amen óók, erkent de hemel mij. —
Tot welken dienst werd ik hierheen gebracht?

MORE:

Cited in Shakespeare’s Legal Maxims (William Lowes Rushton)

Under our arrest=Any restraint upon a person binding him to be responsible to the law, bound to appear on the trial date set (Rest under gage – See: “Lords appellants, Your differences shall all rest under gage”.)
Beholding=Indebted, obliged (beholden)
Procure your sureties=Arrange for guarantors
Days of answer=Defence
Bend my limbs=Bow, go on bended knee
Wherewith=With which
Insinuate=To ingratiate oneself (in a negative sense)
Favour=Face
Clerk=Reader of responses in church service, usually minor cleric or a lay person

Compleat:
Arrest=Raadsbesluit
Beholding, beholden=Gehouden, verplicht, verschuldigt
Surety=Borg, vastigheid
To bend his knees=Zyne knien buigen
Insinuate=Inboezemen, inflyen, inschuiven, indringen
Clerk=Een Kerkelyke, geestelyke, Kerk, schryver; Sekretaris

Topics: law/legal, respect, order/society, status, appearance, defence

PLAY: As You Like It
ACT/SCENE: 3.2
SPEAKER: Corin
CONTEXT:
TOUCHSTONE
Why, if thou never wast at court, thou never saw’st good manners; if thou never saw’st good manners, then thy manners must be wicked, and wickedness is sin, and sin is damnation. Thou art in a parlous state, shepherd.
CORIN
Not a whit, Touchstone. Those that are good manners at the court are as ridiculous in the country as the behavior of the country is most mockable at the court. You told me you salute not at the court but you kiss your hands. That courtesy would be uncleanly if courtiers were shepherds.

DUTCH:
[W]at aan het hof goede gedragingen zijn, is even belachlijk op het land, als de manieren van het land bespottelijk zijn aan het hof.

MORE:
Schmidt:
Salute=To greet each other by kissing
Parlous=Perilous

Topics: order/society, civility, status

PLAY: Othello
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Othello
CONTEXT:
OTHELLO
Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust them.
Good signior, you shall more command with years
Than with your weapons.
BRABANTIO
O thou foul thief, where hast thou stowed my daughter?
Damned as thou art, thou hast enchanted her!
For I’ll refer me to all things of sense,
If she in chains of magic were not bound,
Whether a maid so tender, fair, and happy,
So opposite to marriage that she shunned
The wealthy curlèd darlings of our nation,
Would ever have, t’ incur a general mock,
Run from her guardage to the sooty bosom
Of such a thing as thou—to fear, not to delight.

DUTCH:
Steekt op uw blanke klingen, want de nachtdauw
Zal die doen roesten. — Edel Heer, uw leeftijd
Dwingt eér ontzag af, dan uw zwaard het doet.

MORE:

Keep up=Put away
Stowed=Hidden away
Command with years=Respect for age and status
General mock=Public ridicule

Topics: status, respect, age/experience, dispute, resolution, relationship, marriage

PLAY: Coriolanus
ACT/SCENE: 5.1
SPEAKER: Cominius
CONTEXT:
COMINIUS
He would not seem to know me.
MENENIUS
Do you hear?
COMINIUS
Yet one time he did call me by my name.
I urged our old acquaintance, and the drops
That we have bled together. “Coriolanus”
He would not answer to, forbade all names.
He was a kind of nothing, titleless,
Till he had forged himself a name o’ th’ fire
Of burning Rome.

DUTCH:
Hij was een soort van niets, gansch zonder naam,
Tot hij zich uit de vlam van ‘t brandend Rome
Een naam gesmeed had.

MORE:

Schmidt:
To urge=To speak of, to mention
Yet=Only
Forge=To frame in general

Compleat:
Forge=Smeden; uitvinden

Topics: status, authority, reputation

PLAY: King Henry VI Part 3
ACT/SCENE: 5.5
SPEAKER: Prince Edward
CONTEXT:
KING EDWARD IV
Bring forth the gallant, let us hear him speak.
What! Can so young a thorn begin to prick?
Edward, what satisfaction canst thou make
For bearing arms, for stirring up my subjects,
And all the trouble thou hast turn’d me to?
PRINCE EDWARD
Speak like a subject, proud ambitious York!
Suppose that I am now my father’s mouth;
Resign thy chair, and where I stand kneel thou,
Whilst I propose the selfsame words to thee,
Which traitor, thou wouldst have me answer to.
QUEEN MARGARET
Ah, that thy father had been so resolved!
GLOUCESTER
That you might still have worn the petticoat,
And ne’er have stol’n the breech from Lancaster.
PRINCE EDWARD
Let Aesop fable in a winter’s night;
His currish riddles sort not with this place.

DUTCH:
Aesopus moge in winternachten faab’len;
Hier passen zulke hondsche raadsels niet.

MORE:

Gallant=Person of rank
Prick=Incite
Satisfaction=Amends
Turned me to=Caused me
Suppose=Consider, remember
Breech=Trousers
Currish=Malicious

Compleat:
Gallant=Salet jonker
To prick=Prikken, steeken, prikkelen
Satisfaction= (amends) Vergoeding, voldoening
Suppose=Vermoeden, denken, onderstellen
Currish=Hondsch, kwaadaardig

Burgersdijk notes:
V. 5. 25. Aesopus moge in winternachten faab’len. De Prins vergelijkt Richard met den mismaakten
fabeldichter Aesopus.

Topics: remedy, truth, respect, status, order/society, marriage

PLAY: The Tempest
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Miranda
CONTEXT:
MIRANDA
Abhorrèd slave,
Which any print of goodness wilt not take,
Being capable of all ill! I pitied thee,
Took pains to make thee speak, taught thee each hour
One thing or other. When thou didst not, savage,
Know thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble like
A thing most brutish, I endowed thy purposes
With words that made them known. But thy vile race,
Though thou didst learn, had that in ’t which good natures
Could not abide to be with. Therefore wast thou
Deservedly confined into this rock,
Who hadst deserved more than a prison.
CALIBAN
You taught me language, and my profit on ’t
Is I know how to curse. The red plague rid you
For learning me your language!

DUTCH:
Deernis had ik;
En schonk u met veel zorg de spraak, ik leerde
U ieder uur iets nieuws; toen gij, een wilde,
Uzelven niet begreept, en klanken uitstiet
Gelijk het stomste vee, gaf ik u woorden,
Zoodat ge u uiten kondt;

MORE:
Schmidt:
Print=Imprint
Take=To receive as a thing in any way given or communicated
Gabble=Caliban is speaking in another language (incomprehensible to Miranda)
Purpose=That which a person or thing means to say or express, sense, meaning, purport: “I endowed thy –s with words,”
Rid=Destroy
Compleat:
Imprint=Inddrukken, inprenten
To imprint a thing in one’s mind=Iemand iets in het geheugen prenten
Gabble=Gekakel, gesnater
To gabble=Snappen, kakelen, koeteren
To gabble French=Fransch koeteren

Topics: language, learning/education, understanding, status, pity, order/society

PLAY: As You Like It
ACT/SCENE: 5.2
SPEAKER: Rosalind
CONTEXT:
I will weary you then no longer with idle talking. Know of me then—for now I speak to some purpose—that I know you are a gentleman of good conceit. I speak not this that you should bear a good opinion of my knowledge, insomuch I say I know you are. Neither do I labour for a greater esteem than may in some little measure draw a belief from you to do yourself good, and not to grace me. Believe then, if you please, that I can do strange things.

DUTCH:
Dan wil ik u niet langer met ijdele praatjens vermoeien. Verneem dus van mij, — want nu spreek ik niet zonder bedoeling, — dat ik u ken als een edelman van goed begrip.

MORE:
Schmidt:
Conceit = extraction, birth (“This cannot be gentlemen of good parts, of wit; for ‘their needs no magician to tell him this.'”).

Topics: status, reputation, integrity

PLAY: The Merchant of Venice
ACT/SCENE: 2.9
SPEAKER: Arragon
CONTEXT:
ARRAGON
And so have I addressed me. Fortune now
To my heart’s hope! Gold, silver, and base lead.
“Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath.”
You shall look fairer ere I give or hazard.
What says the golden chest? Ha, let me see.
“Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire.”
“What many men desire”—that “many” may be meant
By the fool multitude that choose by show,
Not learning more than the fond eye doth teach;
Which pries not to th’ interior, but like the martlet
Builds in the weather on the outward wall,
Even in the force and road of casualty.
I will not choose what many men desire
Because I will not jump with common spirits
And rank me with the barbarous multitudes.
Why then, to thee, thou silver treasure house.
Tell me once more what title thou dost bear.
“Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves.”
And well said too—for who shall go about
To cozen fortune and be honorable
Without the stamp of merit? Let none presume
To wear an undeserved dignity.
Oh, that estates, degrees and offices
Were not derived corruptly, and that clear honor
Were purchased by the merit of the wearer!
How many then should cover that stand bare!
How many be commanded that command!
How much low peasantry would then be gleaned
From the true seed of honor! And how much honor
Picked from the chaff and ruin of the times
To be new varnished! Well, but to my choice.
“Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves.”
I will assume desert.—Give me a key for this,
And instantly unlock my fortunes here.

DUTCH:
Ik wil mij niet naar lage geesten schikken,
Niet voegen bij den grooten dommen hoop.

MORE:
CITED IN EWCA LAW:
Cruddas v Calvert & Ors [2013] EWCA Civ 748 (21 June 2013)
DeRonde v. Regents of the Univ. of California, 102 Cal. App. 3d 221 (1980): “We close with a quotation from Shakespeare, who so eloquently reminds us that competition on the basis of merit alone is the lifeblood of a democratic society: ‘For who shall go about….’.”

Fool multitude=Foolish commoners
Fond=Doting, simple.
Fond eye=What meets the eye
Jump with=Agree with
Barbarous=Ignorant, unlettered
Cozen=Cheat
Undeservèd=Unmerited
Dignity=Elevated rank, high office
Compleat:
Multitude=Menigte, veelheid, het gemeene volk, het gepeupel
Jump (to agree)=Het ééns worden, overenstemmen.
Their opinions jump much with ours=Hunne gevoelens komen veel met de onzen overeen
Wits jump always together=De groote verstanden beulen altijd saamenCozen=Bedriegen
Merit=Verdienste.
What ever may be said of him wil fall short of his merit=Alles wat men van hem zeggen kan, is minder dan zyne verdienste.
Dignity (Merit, importance)=Waardigheid, Staat-ampt, verdiensten.
Dignity (Greatness, Nobleness)=Grootheid, Adelykheid.

Burgersdijk notes:
Als de zwaluw. De huiszwaluw, in het Engelsch martlet (Hirundo urbica), maakt haar nest aan de buitenzijde van gebouwen; meestal vindt men er verscheidene dicht bijeen, zooals Sh. uitvoeriger in Macbeth I. 6.4. beschrijft. Sh. wist, welke soort hij koos; de boerenzwaluw (Hirundo rustics) nestelt
binnenshuis, b.v. in stallen, of, in onbewoonde streken, in rotsholten enz.

Topics: emotion and mood, misquoted

PLAY: Coriolanus
ACT/SCENE: 2.3
SPEAKER: Coriolanus
CONTEXT:
You should account me the more virtuous that I have
not been common in my love. I will, sir, flatter my
sworn brother, the people, to earn a dearer
estimation of them; ’tis a condition they account
gentle: and since the wisdom of their choice is
rather to have my hat than my heart, I will practise
the insinuating nod and be off to them most
counterfeitly; that is, sir, I will counterfeit the
bewitchment of some popular man and give it
bountiful to the desirers. Therefore, beseech you,
I may be consul.

DUTCH:
En daar zij, in de wijsheid-schap, die hunner keus, van mijn hoed meer gediend zijn dan van mijn hart, wil ik het innemend knikken beoefenen en zooveel mogelijk door naaiping met hen op goeden voet zien te komen; dat wil zeggen, vriend, ik wil de tooverkunsten van den een of anderen volkslieveling naapen, en daar mild mee zijn jegens ieder, die er van gediend is.

MORE:
A dearer estimation of them=That they will think more of me, hold me in higher esteem
Be off to them=Doff my cap to them
Counterfeitly=Feigning respect
Condition=Quality, trait
Gentle=Noble, polite
Popular man=A man who courts popular favour
Bountiful=Liberally

Compleat:
Gentle=Aardig, edelmoedig
Counterfeit=Valsch
Popular=By ‘t gemeene volk bemind, wel by ‘t volk gewild, gemeenzaam
He was a popular man=Hy was een man die wel by ‘t volk gewild was; die zig naar ‘t volk voegde, of die de gunst des volks zocht te verkrygen.

Topics: status, deceit, appearance, order/society, authority, manipulation

PLAY: Coriolanus
ACT/SCENE: 3.2
SPEAKER: Coriolanus
CONTEXT:
CORIOLANUS
I muse my mother
Does not approve me further, who was wont
To call them woollen vassals, things created
To buy and sell with groats, to show bare heads
In congregations, to yawn, be still and wonder,
When one but of my ordinance stood up
To speak of peace or war.
…(enter Volumnia)
I talk of you:
Why did you wish me milder? would you have me
False to my nature? Rather say I play
The man I am.
VOLUMNIA
O, sir, sir, sir,
I would have had you put your power well on,
Before you had worn it out.

DUTCH:
Hadt gij uw eervol machtkleed aangedaan,
Aleer gij ‘t hadt versleten!

MORE:
I muse=I am astonished, I wonder
Woollen vassals=Slaves dressed in rough, coarse clothing
Ordinance=Order, rank

Compleat:
Vassal=Leenman, onderdaan
Ordinance=Inzetting, instelling

Topics: authority, appearance, deception, status

PLAY: King Henry VIII
ACT/SCENE: 5.2
SPEAKER: King Henry VIII
CONTEXT:
BUTTS
There, my lord:
The high promotion of his Grace of Canterbury,
Who holds his state at door, ’mongst pursuivants,
Pages, and footboys.
KING
Ha! ’Tis he indeed.
Is this the honour they do one another?
’Tis well there’s one above ’em yet. I had thought
They had parted so much honesty among ’em—
At least good manners—as not thus to suffer
A man of his place, and so near our favor,
To dance attendance on their Lordships’ pleasures,
And at the door, too, like a post with packets.
By holy Mary, Butts, there’s knavery!
Let ’em alone, and draw the curtain close.
We shall hear more anon.

DUTCH:
Is dit dus de eer, die zij elkander aandoen?
Eén staat er boven hen, gelukkig.

MORE:
Proverb: To dance attendance
Pursuivant=Low-ranking officer
Parted=Distributed
Suffer=Allow, tolerate
Place=Position, rank
Post=Messenger
Compleat:
Pursuivant=Een ‘s Konings boode
Parted=Gedeelt, gescheyden, geschift
Suffer=Toelaaten, gedoogen
Place=Plaats
Post=Een post, boode

Topics: proverbs and idioms, order/society, status

PLAY: King Henry VI Part 3
ACT/SCENE: 3.1
SPEAKER: King Henry VI
CONTEXT:
KING HENRY VI
From Scotland am I stol’n, even of pure love,
To greet mine own land with my wishful sight.
No, Harry, Harry, ’tis no land of thine;
Thy place is fill’d, thy sceptre wrung from thee,
Thy balm wash’d off wherewith thou wast anointed:
No bending knee will call thee Caesar now,
No humble suitors press to speak for right,
No, not a man comes for redress of thee;
For how can I help them, and not myself?
FIRST KEEPER
Ay, here’s a deer whose skin’s a keeper’s fee:
This is the quondam king; let’s seize upon him.
KING HENRY VI
Let me embrace thee, sour adversity,
For wise men say it is the wisest course.

DUTCH:
k Wil ‘t bitter lot, dat mij bezoekt, omhelzen;
Dit, zeggen wijzen, is de wijste keus.

MORE:

Proverb: Adversity makes men wise
Proverb: In adversity men find eyes
Proverb: An enemy makes a man to know himself, whereas a friend flatters a man and deceives him

The Arden edition has “adversaries” rather than “adversities”.

Wishful sight=Longing look
Balm=Oil used to anoint kings
Speak for right=Plead for justice
Redress=Amendment, remedy
Keeper’s fee=Gamekeepers were given the horns and skin of hunted deer
Quondam=Former, as was

Compleat:
To speak for=(propose, move) Iets voorstellen, op ‘t tapyt brengen
Redress=Herstelling, verhelping, verbetering, vergoeding, verligting

Topics: adversity, proverbs and idioms, status

PLAY: As you Like It
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Celia
CONTEXT:
CELIA
Let us sit and mock the good housewife Fortune from her wheel, that her gifts may henceforth be bestowed equally.
ROSALIND
I would we could do so, for her benefits are mightily misplaced, and the bountiful blind woman doth most mistake in her gifts to women.

DUTCH:
Laat ons gaan zitten, en die nijvere huisvrouw met
dat wiel, Fortuin, door spot er van af jagen, opdat
voortaan haar gaven wat onpartijdiger worden uitgedeeld

MORE:
Schmidt:
Wheel: Attribute of Fortune, as the emblem of mutability

Burgersdijk notes:
Die nijvere huisvrouw. Alsof het rad of wiel van Fortuin een spinnewiel was. Zie ook „Antonius en
Cleopatra”, IV, 15.

Topics: fate/destiny, life, status, poverty and wealth

PLAY: Hamlet
ACT/SCENE: 4.5
SPEAKER: Ophelia
CONTEXT:
Well, God’ield you! They say the owl was a baker’s daughter. Lord, we know what we are, but know not what we may be. God be at your table.

DUTCH:
Wij weten wat we zijn, maar wij weten niet wat we misschien zullen worden /
Ach, heer, wij weten wel wat we zijn, maar niet wat we nog worden kunnen.

MORE:
God yield you= God bless you
The legend had been often used to enkindle kind feelings for the poor and unfortunate. The story, which is current to-day among the nursery tales of Gloucestershire, relates that the Savior in disguise entered a baker’s shop, asking for some bread; and, when the baker charitably put a large piece of dough into the oven to bake for Him, his daughter rebuked him, and for her unkindness was changed into an owl.

Burgersdijk notes:
Men zegt, dat de uil een bakkersdochter geweest is. Ophelia denkt aan een oude legende, die in Glocestershire algemeen in omloop was: de Heiland vroeg eens een bakkersvrouw om brood, wat zij hem ook dadelijk wilde
bakken. De dochter vond, dat hare moeder er te veel deeg voor gebruikte en nam het grootste deel er van weg. Toen zwol het overschot plotseling allergeweldigst op, zoodat de dochter, in haar verbazing, kreten uitte, niet ongelijk aan uilengeschreenw, waarop de Heiland haar in een uil veranderde. Vandaar Ophelia’s zeggen: „wij weten niet, wat wij kunnen worden .” Dit verhaal werd aan kinderen gedaan, om hun barmhartigheid in te prenten.

Topics: status, fate/destiny, life

PLAY: The Tempest
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Prospero
CONTEXT:
PROSPERO
To have no screen between this part he played
And him he played it for, he needs will be
Absolute Milan. Me, poor man, my library
Was dukedom large enough. Of temporal royalties
He thinks me now incapable, confederates,
So dry he was for sway, wi’th’ King of Naples
To give him annual tribute, do him homage,
Subject his coronet to his crown, and bend
The dukedom yet unbowed (alas, poor Milan)
To most ignoble stooping.

DUTCH:
Mij, arme, was mijn boekzaal
Wel hertogdoms genoeg; voor ‘t rijksbestuur
Acht hij mij ongeschikt; sluit een verbond, —
Zoo dorstte hij naar rang!

MORE:
Screen=Means of securing from attack; something that intervenes obstructively; anything that separates or conceals
Schmidt:
Temporal=Pertaining to this life or this world, not spiritual, not eternal: “my library was dukedom large enough.
Dry=Thirsty, eager
Sway=Rule, dominion
Me=”For me” or “As for me”
Ignoble=Of low or dishonourable descent
Compleat:
Temporal (secular, not spiritual)=Waereldlyk
Dry (or penurious)=Inhaalend, gierig
Sway=Macht, gezach, heerschappij
To sway=Heerschen, regeeren, ‘t bewind hebben
Ignoble (of mean birth)=Laag van geboorte, on-edel
Ignoble (or base) action=Een on-edele daad
Ignobly=Laag, snood

Topics: learning/education, ambition, authority, status

PLAY: The Tempest
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Ferdinand
CONTEXT:
MIRANDA
No wonder, sir,
But certainly a maid.
FERDINAND
My language! Heavens,
I am the best of them that speak this speech,
Were I but where ’tis spoken.
PROSPERO
How? The best?
What wert thou if the King of Naples heard thee?
FERDINAND
A single thing, as I am now, that wonders
To hear thee speak of Naples. He does hear me,
And that he does I weep. Myself am Naples,
Who with mine eyes, never since at ebb, beheld
The king my father wrecked.

DUTCH:
Mijne taal, o hemel! —
Van wie haar spreken ben ik de eerste, ware ik
Slechts daar, waar zij gesproken wordt.

MORE:
Best=Highest in rank
At ebb=Tears have never since stopped
A single thing=(1) Standing alone, without support; (2) One and the same

Topics: language, understanding, status, order/society, independence

PLAY: King Henry VIII
ACT/SCENE: 1.1
SPEAKER: Norfolk
CONTEXT:
NORFOLK
All this was order’d by the good discretion
Of the right reverend Cardinal of York.
BUCKINGHAM
The devil speed him! no man’s pie is freed
From his ambitious finger. What had he
To do in these fierce vanities? I wonder
That such a keech can with his very bulk
Take up the rays o’ the beneficial sun
And keep it from the earth.
NORFOLK
Surely, sir,
There’s in him stuff that puts him to these ends;
For, being not propp’d by ancestry, whose grace
Chalks successors their way, nor call’d upon
For high feats done to the crown; neither allied
For eminent assistants; but, spider-like,
Out of his self-drawing web, he gives us note,
The force of his own merit makes his way
A gift that heaven gives for him, which buys
A place next to the king.

DUTCH:
De duivel haal’ hem! Zijn eergier’ge vinger
Wil ieders brijpan roeren

MORE:
Often misquoted as “People’s good deeds we write in water. The evil deeds are etched in brass”
Proverb: Injuries are written in brass
Live=Live on (are etched)
Manners=Conduct, actions
Speak his good=Speak of his goodness, virtue, charitable deeds
Compleat:
Manners=Manierlykheid

Topics: merit, ambition, work, status, proverbs and idioms

PLAY: Cymbeline
ACT/SCENE: 1.1
SPEAKER: Imogen
CONTEXT:
IMOGEN
O, blessèd that I might not! I chose an eagle
And did avoid a puttock.
CYMBELINE
Thou took’st a beggar, wouldst have made my throne
A seat for baseness.
IMOGEN
No, I rather added
A lustre to it.
CYMBELINE
O thou vile one!
IMOGEN
Sir,
It is your fault that I have loved Posthumus.
You bred him as my playfellow, and he is
A man worth any woman, overbuys me
Almost the sum he pays.

DUTCH:
Wèl mij, ik wachtte niet; ik koos een aad’laar,
En meed een gier.


Puttock=Kite, not a hawk worthy of training (a kite, buzzard or marsh harrier)
Overbuys=I am worth but a small fraction of what he gives for me
Baseness=Vileness, meanness
Take=Marry (take in marriage)

Compleat:
Puttock (buzzard)=Een buizard, zekere roofvogel
Baseness=Laagheid, lafhartigheid

Topics: marriage, value, order/society, status, love

PLAY: As You Like It
ACT/SCENE: 1.3
SPEAKER: Rosalind
CONTEXT:
ROSALIND
O, how full of briars is this working-day world!
CELIA They are but burrs, cousin, thrown upon thee in holiday foolery: if we walk not in the trodden paths our very petticoats will catch them.
ROSALIND
I could shake them off my coat: these burrs are in my heart.

DUTCH:
Neen, ook wel wat om mijns vaders kind. 0, hoe
vol distels is deze alledaagsche wereld!

MORE:
Schmidt:
Working-day (adjectively)=Common, ordinary, trivial vulgar
Burr=Rough head of the burdock
Foolery=Jesting, buffoonery
Compleat:
Burr=Kliskruid

Topics: status, order/society, custom

PLAY: Coriolanus
ACT/SCENE: 3.1
SPEAKER: Coriolanus
CONTEXT:
This double worship—
Where one part does disdain with cause, the other
Insult without all reason, where gentry, title, wisdom
Cannot conclude but by the yea and no
Of general ignorance—it must omit
Real necessities and give way the while
To unstable slightness. Purpose so barred, it follows
Nothing is done to purpose. Therefore, beseech you—
You that will be less fearful than discreet,
That love the fundamental part of state
More than you doubt the change on ’t, that prefer
A noble life before a long, and wish
To jump a body with a dangerous physic
That’s sure of death without it—at once pluck out
The multitudinous tongue; let them not lick
The sweet which is their poison. Your dishonour
Mangles true judgment and bereaves the state
Of that integrity which should become ’t,
Not having the power to do the good it would
For th’ ill which doth control ’t.

DUTCH:
Dit dubbel staatsbewind, (…) ‘t laat, natuurlijk,
Het noodigst ongedaan, aan vooze wuftheid
Den vrijen loop; geen weg naar ‘t doel is vrij,
Dus wordt geen doel bereikt.

MORE:
Cited in Shakespeare’s Legal Maxims (William Lowes Rushton)

Proverb: He lives long that lives well

Double worship=Divided allegiance
Nothing is done to purpose=No policy is effective
Conclude=Decide
General ignorance=The ignorant public (crowd)
Jump=Jolt, put at stake, hazard
Unstable slightness=Inconstant and trifling issues
Less fearful than discreet=More out of prudence than timidity
Should become it=The appropriate (integrity)
Bereave=To rob, take from
Multitudinous=Belonging to the multitude

Compleat:
Become=Betaamen
An invincible ignorance=Een onverbeterlyke domheid
Unstable=Onbestendig, ongestadig
To conclude=Besluiten, sluiten
To no purpose=Niet baaten

Topics: order/society, conflict, intellect, status, integrity

PLAY: King Henry V
ACT/SCENE: 2.4
SPEAKER: Exeter
CONTEXT:
Scorn and defiance, slight regard, contempt,
And anything that may not misbecome
The mighty sender, doth he prize you at.
Thus says my king: an if your father’s Highness
Do not, in grant of all demands at large,
Sweeten the bitter mock you sent his Majesty,
He’ll call you to so hot an answer of it
That caves and womby vaultages of France
Shall chide your trespass and return your mock
In second accent of his ordinance.

DUTCH:
Uittarting en verachting, hoon en spot,
En alles, wat den grooten zender niet
Onteeren kan.

MORE:

Slight regard=Scant regard, disregard
Misbecome=To suit ill, not to befit, to be unseemly in
In grant of=The act of granting or bestowing, concession, permission
Mock=Ridicule, derision, sneer
Womby=Hollow, capacious
Vaultage=Cavern
Answer=Reply to a charge
Accent=Sound of voice
Second accent=Echo
Ordinance=Artillery

Compleat:
Misbecome=Misstaan, niet wel voegen
It misbecomes him=Het misstaat hem

Topics: status, order/society, value, insult

PLAY: King Henry VI Part 2
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Hume
CONTEXT:
Hume must make merry with the duchess’ gold;
Marry, and shall. But how now, Sir John Hume!
Seal up your lips, and give no words but mum:
The business asketh silent secrecy.
Dame Eleanor gives gold to bring the witch:
Gold cannot come amiss, were she a devil.
Yet have I gold flies from another coast;
I dare not say, from the rich cardinal
And from the great and new-made Duke of Suffolk,
Yet I do find it so; for to be plain,
They, knowing Dame Eleanor’s aspiring humour,
Have hired me to undermine the duchess
And buz these conjurations in her brain.
They say ‘A crafty knave does need no broker;’
Yet am I Suffolk and the cardinal’s broker.
Hume, if you take not heed, you shall go near
To call them both a pair of crafty knaves.
Well, so it stands; and thus, I fear, at last
Hume’s knavery will be the duchess’ wrack,
And her attainture will be Humphrey’s fall:
Sort how it will, I shall have gold for all.

DUTCH:
Maar wat nu, John Hume?
Steeds mondjendicht; geen ander woord, dan. . . mum!

MORE:

Proverb: A cunning (crafty) knave needs no broker

Modern usage: Mum’s the word
Not invented by Shakespeare: the word was first used in the 14th century, although Shakespeare probably helped to make it popular. The word ‘mum’ may refer to the humming sound made by a closed mouth.
Asketh=Demands, requires
Buz=(or buzz) Whisper
Conjurations=Incantations; obsecration
Wrack=Ruin
Attainture=Shame; conviction

Compleat:
Knave=Een guit, boef
To buzz into one’s ears=Iemand in ‘t oor blaazen
Conjuration=Samenzweering, eedgespan, vloekverwantschap, bezweering
Wrack=(a ship): Een schip aan stukken stooten
To go to wrack=Verlooren gaan, te gronde gaan
To attaint=Overtuigen van misdaad, schuldig verklaaren, betichten; bevlekken, bederf aanzetten
Attainture (of blood)=Bederving of aansteeking des bloeds

Topics: secrecy, ambition, status, betrayal, invented or popularised

PLAY: Cymbeline
ACT/SCENE: 3.4
SPEAKER: Pisanio
CONTEXT:
PISANIO
O gracious lady,
Since I received command to do this business I have not slept one wink.
IMOGEN
Do’t, and to bed then
PISANIO
I’ll wake mine eye-balls out first.
IMOGEN
Wherefore then
Didst undertake it? Why hast thou abused
So many miles with a pretence? This place?

DUTCH:
O, eed’le vrouw,
Sinds ik bevel ontving dit werk te doen,
Sloot ik geen oog.

Modern usage: I haven’t slept a wink (not coined by Shakespeare. First recorded use in 14th century)
Wake mine eye-balls blind=Stay awake until I’m blind

Compleat:
The ball of the eye=De oogappel

Topics: proverbs and idioms, still in use, authority, work, status, duty, debt/obligation

PLAY: Cymbeline
ACT/SCENE: 4.2
SPEAKER: Imogen
CONTEXT:
So man and man should be;
But clay and clay differs in dignity,
Whose dust is both alike. I am very sick.

DUTCH:
Menschen moesten ‘t zijn;
Maar stof en stof verschillen wel in rang,
Hoezeer hun asch gelijk zij.


Proverb: All are of the same dust

Compleat:
We are but dust and ashes=Wy zyn niet dan stof en asch

Topics: status, relationship, proverbs and idioms, life

PLAY: Romeo and Juliet
ACT/SCENE: 1.1
SPEAKER: Gregory
CONTEXT:
GREGORY
That shows thee a weak slave, for the weakest goes to the wall.
SAMPSON
‘Tis true, and therefore women, being the weaker vessels, are ever thrust to the wall. Therefore I will push Montague’s men from the wall, and thrust his maids to the wall.

DUTCH:
Dat doet je alweer als een zwakken bloed kennen; want de
zwakste houdt zich aan alles vast.

MORE:
Vessel = person
To go to the wall=be pushed aside, succumb in conflict or struggle
Current use=A business that fails, goes bankrupt.
Even in Shakespeare’s time, the phrases were often confused. In the first scene of Romeo and Juliet, two characters engage in wordplay over meanings of the phrase “goes to the wall.” Gregory’s explanation is that being close to the wall is a sign of weakness as they were allowed to walk ‘inside’ to avoid being splashed or jostled. Sampson later describes how women “being the weaker vessels”) are thrust to the wall. The phrase, which dates back to around 1500, may also have its origins from the installation of seating in churches in the Middle Ages.
To give the wall means to allow someone else to walk on the safer side (i.e. the walled side of the street)
Compleat:
The wall (a place of honour in walking the streets)=De muur, de zyde der huizen, zynde in Engeland de hooger hand, als men langs de straat gaat
To give one the wall=Iemand aan de hoogerhand zetten

Topics: proverbs and idioms, still in use, status, order/society

PLAY: Measure for Measure
ACT/SCENE: 3.1
SPEAKER: Claudio
CONTEXT:
DUKE VINCENTIO
So then you hope of pardon from Lord Angelo?
CLAUDIO
The miserable have no other medicine
But only hope:
I’ve hope to live, and am prepared to die.

DUTCH:
Rampzaal’gen blijft geen andere artsenij
Dan hoop alleen;
Ik hoop te leven, schoon ter dood bereid.

MORE:
Schmidt:
Miserable=Unhappy, wretched
Compleat:
Miserable=Ellendig, deerlyk, jammerlyk, rampzalig
A miserable wretch=Een arm elendig schepzel

Topics: poverty and wealth, order/society, status, fate/destiny

PLAY: All’s Well that Ends Well
ACT/SCENE: 2.5
SPEAKER: Lafew
CONTEXT:
LAFEW
Fare you well, my lord; and
believe this of me, there can be no kernel in this
light nut; the soul of this man is his clothes.
Trust him not in matter of heavy consequence;
I have kept of them tame, and know their natures.
Farewell, monsieur: I have spoken better
of you than you have or will to deserve at my
hand; but we must do good against evil.

DUTCH:
Vaarwel, mijn heer, en geloof mij, in deze vooze noot kan geen pit schuilen; de ziel van dezen mensch zit in zijn kleederen.

MORE:
Light nut=Lightweight
Consequence=Influence, importance
Compleat:
Consequence=Belang

Topics: status, merit, respect, good and bad, appearance

PLAY: Hamlet
ACT/SCENE: 5.1
SPEAKER: Gravedigger
CONTEXT:
Why, there thou sayst. And the more pity that great folk should have countenance in this world to drown or hang themselves more than their even Christian. Come, my spade. There is no ancient gentleman but gardeners, ditchers, and grave-makers. They hold up Adam’s profession.

DUTCH:
Kom, schoppie, er is geen ouwere adel dan tuinlieden, dood­ gravers en grafmakers. /
Er bestaat geen oudere adel dan die van tuinlui, sloot-en doodgravers. /
De oudste grondheeren zijn tuinlui, aardwerkers en doodgravers.

MORE:
Schmidt:
Countenance=Authority, credit, patronage
Compleat:
Countenance=Gelaat, gezigt, uytzigt, weezen, bescherming

Topics: poverty and wealth, business, skill/talent, status, order/society

PLAY: Richard II
ACT/SCENE: 3.1
SPEAKER: Henry Bolingbroke
CONTEXT:
Till you did make him misinterpret me,
Have stoop’d my neck under your injuries,
And sigh’d my English breath in foreign clouds,
Eating the bitter bread of banishment;
Whilst you have fed upon my signories,
Dispark’d my parks and fell’d my forest woods,
From my own windows torn my household coat,
Razed out my imprese, leaving me no sign,
Save men’s opinions and my living blood,
To show the world I am a gentleman.
This and much more, much more than twice all this,
Condemns you to the death. See them deliver’d over
To execution and the hand of death.

DUTCH:
Dit, en veel meer, veel meer dan tweemaal dit,
Veroordeelt u ter dood. — Men stell’ hen dus
Terecht, en geev’ hen in de hand des doods.

MORE:

Cited in Shakespeare’s Legal Maxims (William Lowes Rushton)

One form of punishment was apparently to deface the arms of traitors and rebels. (Camden’s “Remains”: How the names of them, which for capital crimes against majestie, were erased out of the public records, tables, and registers, or forbidden to be borne by their posteritie, when their memory was damned, I could show at large.”) Berkeley also refers to this punishment in 2.3.

Fed upon=Lived off
Signories=Feudal park; estate, landed property of a lord
Dispark=To treat (a private park) as a common (by divesting it of its enclosures etc.)
Household coat=Coat of arms
Raze out=Erase, scrap away
Imprese=A device, emblem engraved or painted
Sign=Distinguishing mark of (aristocratic) status

Compleat:
To raze out=Uitschrabben, doorhaalen, uitkladden, uitveegen
Imprese=De zinspreuk van eenig wapenschild

Topics: law/legal, punishment, status

PLAY: King Lear
ACT/SCENE: 2.2
SPEAKER: Kent
CONTEXT:
Thou whoreson zed, thou unnecessary letter!—My lord, if you will give me leave, I will tread this unbolted villain into mortar and daub the wall of a jakes with him.—Spare my gray beard, you wagtail?

DUTCH:
Jij smerig, overbodig stuk ellende! Als u mij dat toestaat,
mijn lord, zal ik deze ongebuilde bandiet tot mortel stampen
en daarmee de latrinemuren bepleisteren.

MORE:
In Shakespeare’s time, the letter Z was used even less than it is today: dictionaries of the time ignored the letter. Hence the jibe that as a parasite, Oswald is as unnecessary as the letter Z.
Unbolted=Unsifted, coarse (flour or cement)
Onions:
Jakes=Privy
Wagtail (term of contempt)=Obsequious person
Compleat:
Jakes=Een kakhuis
Jakes-cleanser=Een huisjes ruimer, nachtwerker, stilleveeger.

Topics: insult, language, status

PLAY: King Henry V
ACT/SCENE: 4.7
SPEAKER: Fluellen
CONTEXT:
KING HENRY
It may be his enemy is a gentleman of great sort, quite from the answer of his degree.
FLUELLEN
Though he be as good a gentleman as the devil is, as Lucifer and Beelzebub himself, it is necessary, look your Grace, that he keep his vow and his oath. If he be perjured, see you now, his reputation is as arrant a villain and a Jack Sauce as ever his black shoe trod upon God’s ground and His earth, in my conscience, la.

DUTCH:
Al was hij een zoo goede edelman, als de tuifel het
is, als Lucifer en Pelzepup zelf, toch is het noodig, versta
uwe genade, dat hij zijn gelofte houdt en zijn eed.

MORE:

Proverb: As good a man as ever trod on shoe (neat’s) leather (as ever went on legs)
The answer of his degree=A question of rank (knights were only bound to fight with one of equal rank)

Arrant=Arch
Good=important

Compleat:
An arrant knave=Een overgegeven guit

Topics: status, promise, debt/obligation, reputation, proverbs and idioms

PLAY: Cymbeline
ACT/SCENE: 4.2
SPEAKER: Guiderius
CONTEXT:
CLOTEN
Thou art a robber,
A lawbreaker, a villain. Yield thee, thief.
GUIDERIUS, [as Polydor]To who? To thee? What art thou? Have not I
An arm as big as thine? A heart as big?
Thy words, I grant, are bigger, for I wear not
My dagger in my mouth. Say what thou art,
Why I should yield to thee.
CLOTEN
Thou villain base,
Know’st me not by my clothes?

DUTCH:
Is niet mijn arm
Zoo sterk als de uwe, niet mijn hart zoo sterk?
In woorden kunt gij sterker zijn; ik draag
Mijn dolk niet in mijn mond.


Proverb: The tailor makes the man

“My dagger is my mouth” ref. Solimon and Perseda, “I fight not with my tongue; this (pointing to sword) is my oratrix”
Base= Of low station, of mean account, i.e. base metal

Compleat:
A base fellow=Een slechte vent, oolyke boef
Base=Ondergeschikt

Topics: language, learning/education, order/society, status, appearance, proverbs and idioms

PLAY: Cymbeline
ACT/SCENE: 3.6
SPEAKER: Imogen
CONTEXT:
Two beggars told me
I could not miss my way. Will poor folks lie,
That have afflictions on them, knowing ’tis
A punishment or trial? Yes. No wonder,
When rich ones scarce tell true. To lapse in fullness
Is sorer than to lie for need, and falsehood
Is worse in kings than beggars. My dear lord,
Thou art one o’ th’ false ones. Now I think on thee,
My hunger’s gone; but even before, I was
At point to sink for food. But what is this?
Here is a path to ’t. ’Tis some savage hold.
I were best not call; I dare not call. Yet famine,
Ere clean it o’erthrow nature, makes it valiant.
Plenty and peace breeds cowards; hardness ever
Of hardiness is mother.—Ho! Who’s here?
If anything that’s civil, speak; if savage,
Take or lend. Ho!—No answer? Then I’ll enter.
Best draw my sword; an if mine enemy
But fear the sword like me, he’ll scarcely look on ’t.

DUTCH:
Liegen zij,
Die armoe, nooddruft lijden, ‘t weten, dat
De ellende een straf of een beproeving is?
Ach ja, geen wonder; want de rijken zelfs
Verdraaien meest de waarheid; en in weelde
Te struik’len is veel erger kwaad, dan slechts
Uit nood te liegen; valschheid is in vorsten
Veel boozer dan in beed’laars


Proverb: Afflictions are sent us by God for our good (Will poor folks lie…)

Schmidt:
Trial=Test of virtue
To lapse in fullness=Fall from truth in a state of prosperity
Even before=Just before
Hardiness=Bravery

Compleat:
Trial (temptation)=Beproeving
Even=Even. Just now=Zo even
Hardiness=Onvertzaagdheid, stoutheid, koenheid
Hardiness of constitution=Hardheid van gesteltenis

Topics: integrity, honesty, status, proverbs and idioms,

PLAY: Coriolanus
ACT/SCENE: 2.3
SPEAKER: Third Citizen
CONTEXT:
FIRST CITIZEN
And to make us no better thought of, a little help
will serve; for once we stood up about the corn, he
himself stuck not to call us the many-headed multitude.
THIRD CITIZEN
We have been called so of many; not that our heads
are some brown, some black, some auburn, some bald,
but that our wits are so diversely coloured: and
truly I think if all our wits were to issue out of
one skull, they would fly east, west, north, south,
and their consent of one direct way should be at
once to all the points o’ the compass.

DUTCH:
En waarlijk, ik geloof, dat, als al onze verstanden uit ééne hersenkas moesten te voorschijn komen, zij oost, west, noord en zuid zouden vliegen; en een afspraak van hen, om allen éénzelfden rechten weg te volgen, zou er op uitkomen, dat zij allen op eens naar al de streken van het kompas uiteenstoven.

MORE:
Proverb: A multitude of people is a beast of many heads

Schmidt:
Stood up about=Rose up, protested/fought about
Stuck not=Did not hestitate
Wit=Mental faculty, intellectual power of any kind; understanding, judgment, imagination
Of many=By many
Consent of=Agreement on.
Consent of one direct way=Agreement to go in one direction
If all our wishes…out of one skull=To suppose all their wits to issue from one skull, and that their common consent and agreement to go all one way, should end in their flying to every point of the compass, is a just description of the variety and inconsistency of the opinions, wishes, and actions of the multitude.(M. Mason)

Compleat:
Coloured=Geverfd, gekleurd, afgezet, geblanket
With one consent=Eendragtiglyk
Wits=Zinnen, oordeel

Topics: status, poverty/wealth, intellect

PLAY: As You Like It
ACT/SCENE: 3.2
SPEAKER: Touchstone
CONTEXT:
TOUCHSTONE
Such a one is a natural philosopher. Wast ever in court, shepherd?
CORIN
No, truly.
TOUCHSTONE
Then thou art damned.
CORIN
Nay, I hope.
TOUCHSTONE
Truly, thou art damned, like an ill-roasted egg, all on one side.
CORIN
For not being at court? Your reason.

DUTCH:
Waarachtig, gij wordt gebraden, evenals een slecht gebraden ei, aldoor aan éen kant.

MORE:

Topics: insult, order/society, status, civility

PLAY: King Henry IV Part 2
ACT/SCENE: 3.1
SPEAKER: King
CONTEXT:
(…) Wilt thou upon the high and giddy mast
Seal up the shipboy’s eyes, and rock his brains
In cradle of the rude imperious surge
And in the visitation of the winds,
Who take the ruffian billows by the top,
Curling their monstrous heads and hanging them
With deafening clamor in the slippery clouds
That with the hurly death itself awakes?
Canst thou, O partial sleep, give thy repose
To the wet sea-boy in an hour so rude,
And, in the calmest and most stillest night,
With all appliances and means to boot,
Deny it to a king? Then, happy low, lie down.
Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.

DUTCH:
Hard ligt het hoofd, omsloten door een kroon.

MORE:

Warburton says that “Happy low, lie down!” is a corruption of “Happy lowly clown”. These lines make the lines as follows: “If sleep will fly a king and consort itself with beggars, then happy the lowly clown, and uneasy the crowned head.”

Appliance=Devices, appointments
To boot=In addition
Hurly=Hurly-burly, tumult
Low=Low-ranking persons

Compleat:
Hurly-burly=Een gestommel, dedrang, oproer
What will you give me to boot if we exchange?=Wat wil je my toegeeven indien wy ruilen?

Topics: conscience, leadership, duty, prder/society, status

PLAY: Measure for Measure
ACT/SCENE: 2.2
SPEAKER: Isabella
CONTEXT:
We cannot weigh our brother with ourself:
Great men may jest with saints; ’tis wit in them,
But in the less foul profanation.

DUTCH:
Niet met zichzelf mag men zijn naaste meten

MORE:
Schmidt:
Weigh=To ascertain the weight of, to examine by the balance
That by which a thing is counterbalanced, preceded by against or with
Profanation=The act of violating holy things, irreverence
Compleat:
Profanation=Ontheiliging, schending
Weigh=Weegen, overweegen
To weigh all things by pleasures and sorrows=Van alles oordeelen door het vermaak of de droefheid
His authority weighs more than his arguments=Zyn gezach weegt zwaarder als de argumenten

Topics: judgment, equality, status, order/society, law/legal

PLAY: The Tempest
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Miranda
CONTEXT:
PROSPERO
Thy mother was a piece of virtue, and
She said thou wast my daughter; and thy father
Was Duke of Milan, and his only heir
And princess, no worse issued.
MIRANDA
O, the heavens!
What foul play had we that we came from thence?
Or blessed wast we did?
PROSPERO
Both, both, my girl.
By foul play, as thou sayst, were we heaved thence,
But blessedly holp hither.

DUTCH:
0, hemel!
Wat booze treken dreven ons van daar?
Of brachten zij ons zegen?

MORE:
Piece of virtue=Masterpiece, perfect specimen or
Worse issue=Lower (no worse issued = not of lesser birth than a pricess)
Holp=Short for holpen, helped
Compleat:
Holpen=Geholpen
Holp op=Opgeholpen
Ill holp op=In een slegte staat laaten
Issue=Afkomst, afkomeling

Topics: virtue, understanding, status, foul play, fate/destiny

PLAY: Coriolanus
ACT/SCENE: 2.1
SPEAKER: Menenius
CONTEXT:
BRUTUS
Come, come, you are well understood to be a
perfecter giber for the table than a necessary
bencher in the Capitol.
MENENIUS
Our very priests must become mockers, if they shall
encounter such ridiculous subjects as you are. When
you speak best unto the purpose, it is not worth the
wagging of your beards; and your beards deserve not
so honourable a grave as to stuff a botcher’s
cushion, or to be entombed in an ass’s pack-
saddle. Yet you must be saying, Martius is proud;
who in a cheap estimation, is worth predecessors
since Deucalion, though peradventure some of the
best of ’em were hereditary hangmen.

DUTCH:
Als gij het best ter zake spreekt, is het niet eens het schudden
van uw baarden waard;

MORE:
The wagging of your beards=The effort of speaking
Cheap estimation=Lowest possible valuation

Schmidt:
Peradventure=Perhaps
Mocker=Scoffer
Botcher=One who mends and patches old clothes (See Twelfth Night, 1.5)

Compleat:
Mocker=Bespotter, schimper, spotvogel
Wagging=Schudding, waggeling
Botcher=Een lapper, knoeijer, boetelaar, broddelaar
Peradventure=Bygeval, misschien

Topics: insult, intellect, status, respect

PLAY: Measure for Measure
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Claudio
CONTEXT:
Unhappily, even so.
And the new deputy now for the duke—
Whether it be the fault and glimpse of newness,
Or whether that the body public be
A horse whereon the governor doth ride,
Who, newly in the seat, that it may know
He can command, lets it straight feel the spur;
Whether the tyranny be in his place,
Or in his eminence that fills it up,
I stagger in:—but this new governor
Awakes me all the enrolled penalties
Which have, like unscour’d armour, hung by the wall
So long that nineteen zodiacs have gone round
And none of them been worn; and, for a name,
Now puts the drowsy and neglected act
Freshly on me: ’tis surely for a name.

DUTCH:
Zij ‘t, dat aan ‘t ambt de tyrannie verknocht is,
Of aan den hoogen geest van die ‘t bekleedt,
Ik weet niet.

MORE:
Schmidt:
Glimpse=A transient lustre
Eminence=High place, distinction
Stagger=Waver, hesitate
Awake=Metaphorically, to put to action
Zodiacs=Years
Compleat:
Glimpse=Een Blik, flikkering, schemering
Eminence=Uytsteekendheyd, hoogte
Stagger=Waggelen, wankelen, doen wankelen
He staggers in his opinion=Hy wankelt in zyn gevoelen
To awake=Wekken, wakker maaken, opwekken, ontwaaken

Topics: authority, ambition, law/legal, purpose, status

PLAY: King Lear
ACT/SCENE: 1.2
SPEAKER: Edmund
CONTEXT:
For that I am some twelve or fourteen moonshines
Lag of a brother? Why “bastard”? Wherefore “base”?
When my dimensions are as well compact,
My mind as generous, and my shape as true
As honest madam’s issue? Why brand they us
With “base,” with “baseness,” “bastardy,” “base,” “base” –
Who in the lusty stealth of nature take
More composition and fierce quality
Than doth within a dull, stale, tirèd bed
Go to th’ creating a whole tribe of fops
Got ’tween a sleep and wake?

DUTCH:
Waarom zou ‘k den vloek
Van de oude sleur verdragen, en het dulden,
Dat volksvooroordeel mij onterft, omdat
Mijn broeder twaalf of veertien maneschijnen
Mij voorkwam? Waarom basterd? Wat onecht?

MORE:
CITED IN US LAW: Levy v Louisiana, 391 US 68, 72, n.6, 88 Supreme Court 1509 (1968) (Douglas, J); Williams v Richardson, 347F. Supp. 544, 551 (WDNC 1972).
Schmidt:
Lag of=Behind
Compact= Composed, formed
Generous= Lofty, magnanimous, as befits a gentleman (see also Hamlet 4.7)
True= Proper, correct
Compleat:
Compact=In een trekken, dicht t’saamenvoegen
Generous=Edelmoedig, grootmoedig

Topics: cited in law, relationship, order/society, status

PLAY: All’s Well that Ends Well
ACT/SCENE: 2.3
SPEAKER: Lafew
CONTEXT:
LAFEW
Go to, sir; you were beaten in Italy for picking a
kernel out of a pomegranate; you are a vagabond and
no true traveller: you are more saucy with lords
and honourable personages than the commission of your
birth and virtue gives you heraldry. You are not
worth another word, else I’d call you knave. I leave
you.

DUTCH:
Gij zijt geen woord verder waard; anders zou ik u een schurk noemen.

MORE:
True traveller=Traveller with a government licence
Vagabond=Tramp
Commission=A warrant by which any trust is held, or power exercised
Heraldry=Rank and accomplishments
Knave=Rascal, villain
Compleat:
Vagabond=Een landlooper, schooijer, zwerver
Commission=Last, volmagt, lastbrief, provisie

Topics: insult, order/society, status, respect

PLAY: King Henry VIII
ACT/SCENE: 2.4
SPEAKER: Queen Katherine
CONTEXT:
QUEEN KATHERINE
My lord, my lord,
I am a simple woman, much too weak
To oppose your cunning. You’re meek and humble-mouth’d;
You sign your place and calling, in full seeming,
With meekness and humility; but your heart
Is cramm’d with arrogancy, spleen, and pride.
You have, by fortune and his highness’ favours,
Gone slightly o’er low steps and now are mounted
Where powers are your retainers, and your words,
Domestics to you, serve your will as’t please
Yourself pronounce their office. I must tell you,
You tender more your person’s honour than
Your high profession spiritual: that again
I do refuse you for my judge; and here,
Before you all, appeal unto the pope,
To bring my whole cause ‘fore his holiness,
And to be judged by him.

DUTCH:
U hief ‘t geluk en zijner hoogheid gunst
Licht over lage trappen tot deez’ hoogte,
Waar grooten uw vazallen, en uw woorden
Uw knechten zijn, u dienen, naar uw luim
Hen tot hun ambt benoemt

MORE:
Sign=Show, display
Full seeming=Every outward appearance
Slightly=Effortlessly, carelessly, complacently
Powers=Those in power
Domestics=Servants (words serving)
Tender=Have regard to, care about
Compleat:
Seeming=Schynende
Slightly=Slechtelyk. To make slight=Verachten, kleynachten
Domestick=Een huysgenoot, dienstboode
To tender=Aanbieden, van harte bezinnen, behartigen

Topics: insult, appearance, merit, status

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